Prostrate knotweed: Polygonum aviculare



Core eudicots
Polygonum aviculare L.
-Polygonum aviculare subsp. Aviculare.
-Polygonum aviculare subsp. depressum (Meisn.) Arcang.
-Polygonum aviculare subsp. rurivagum (Jord. ex Boreau) Berher in Louis.
The names
Common names: Protrate knotweeed, Knotgrass.
Latin name: Polygonum aviculare L.
Other names: Knotweed, Birdweed, Pigweed, Lowgrass, Centinode, Ninety-knot. Nine-joints, Allseed, Bird's Tongue, Sparrow Tongue, Red Robin, Armstrong, Cowgrass, Hogweed, Pigrush, Swynel Grass, Swine's Grass, Wireweed.


            Weed Description 
Knotgrass can be found on fields and wasteland all around the world
Knotgrass is an annual plant, growing up to 2 meters in height.  It has a woody, branched root and much branched stems, varying in size. When it grows on a suitable soil and clear of other vegetation, the stems are prostrate with large leaves; when it grows crowded by other plants, stems are upright and the leaves are smaller. Leaves are arranged alternately, lanceolate or oval, and usually stalkless. Tiny flowers are formed in clusters of two to three, in the axils of the stem. They vary in color: pink, red, green, or pale white. The plant is in flower from May to October.
A prostrate summer annual with small, elliptic leaves that is primarily found in compacted areas of turfgrass such as pathways or sports fields.  Prostrate knotweed is found throughout the United States.
Prostrate Knotweed (Polygonum aviculare) is a low-growing, broad-leaved (non-grass) annual that germinates very early in spring. The mass of young seedlings are sometimes mistaken for grass or crabgrass, but as they grow they branch and spread widely across the ground.
This low-growing plant is anchored by a thin, white taproot. Tough, wiry branch stems are covered by small, oval, blue-green leaves. When stems or leaves are broken, any sap that exudes from the wounds is clear, not milky. At each point along the stem where a leaf is attached, there is a small, papery sheath.
Prostrate knotweed strongly prefers soil that is hard, compacted, and poorly aerated. It also seems to be rather salt tolerant, but not shade tolerant. Thus it typically is found along streets where plows have piled road salt-laden snow and slush, along paths and sidewalks, and hard trampled, sunny areas in lawns.
It is also called birdweed, pigweed and lowgrass. It is an annual found in fields and wasteland, with white flowers from June to October.
-Roots:  A taproot.
-Stems:  Branching, growing prostrate along the ground, ranging from 4 to 24 inches in length.  Stems are swollen at the nodes with a thin membranous sheath (ocrea) encircling the stem at each leaf base.
Prostrate knotweed's branches do not root to the ground as they grow. They may extend a foot or more in length, so one sprawling plant could extend over two feet across.
-Leaves: Arranged alternately along the stem, lanceolate in outline, approximately 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches long and 1 to 8 mm wide.  Leaves have short petioles and a distinctive thin membranous sheath (ocrea) that encircles the stem at the leaf base.
-Flowers:  Occur in the area between the stems and leaves (leaf axils).  From 1 to 5 flowers occur in clusters and are very small and inconspicuous, white to pinkish-white in color.
The flowers of knotweed are small pink to white and form in clusters in the leaf axis. Flowers form in late spring. Knotweed spreads by seed.
-Fruit:   A dark red to brown achene.
-Seedlings: Cotyledons are narrow, linear in outline, often resembling and being mistaken for a grass.  The stem below the cotyledons (hypocotyl) is often reddish in color.

Identifying Characteristics 

 Prostrate-growing plants with small lanceolate leaves that are primarily found in hard compacted areas of turfgrass and landscapes.  Some of the spurges like Spotted Spurge (Euphorbia maculata) may be confused with prostrate knotweed, however the spurges do not have an ocrea and emit a milky sap when cut unlike prostrate knotweed.
Prostrate Knotweed is a summer annual, which forms dense patches. Prostrate knotweed is probably the earliest of the summer annuals to germinate in the spring. Prostrate knotweed is often confused with first-leaf crabgrass. Prostrate knotweed is a prostrate weed that produces a thin tap root and multiple branched stems. Even though knotweed does not root down at the nodes of the stems, a single plant can form a dense mass up to three feet across. Prostrate knotweed tolerates extremely compacted soils and is often found in high traffic areas. The leaves appear alternately on the stems, and differ in the color of green depending on the age of the leaf, with older leaves being a less intense green. The stems will be knotty and have a paper like sheath.

Knotgrass is used as food and drinks

In Vietnam, where it is called rau đắng đất, it is widely used to prepare soup and hot pot, particularly in the South region.
Resveratrol was discovered by scientists that monitored that habits of the French. They were boggled that the French consume such high fatty foods, yet do not seem to have the heart and health problems of this lifestyle. The consumption of red wine was the link that researchers were looking for to make the connection about longevity.
If you are looking for a resveratrol recommended dosage for a specific health problem, you might ask a practitioner of traditional Japanese or Chinese herbal medicine about the appropriate dose of Japanese knotweed. Of course, they would only recommend the plant for use as a laxative, to relieve constipation or promote regularity.
Japanese knotweed is the most concentrated source of resveratrol and is the source for most dietary supplements. It is found in grape skins and peanuts, too. But, the supplement only appeared on shelves after news reports proclaimed that it was “the” compound in red wine that accounted for the health benefits of the beverage.
Later, conflicting research concluded that it could not account for the benefits, because the concentration was too low. That result never made it to the mass media. When the studies about red wine were released, vineyards wanted to have it classified as a “health food”.
A liter of red wine with the highest concentration would only contain 12.59mg of the compound. The dried knotweed root contains as much as 187mg/kg or 187mcg/gram. So, if a practitioner suggested 24 grams to relieve severe constipation, the patient would only receive about 4.48mg of resveratrol.
At higher dosages, which are found in some of the supplements on the market, all of the known health benefits of this potent antioxidant are negated, because it becomes a pro-oxidant, meaning that it is something like a free radical, which is what antioxidants normally neutralize. 
See more on:

Prostrate Knotweed (Polygonum aviculare) is used as medicines

Knotweed is an herb. The whole flowering plant is used to make medicine.
In Asia, knotweed is used in the rural medicines to cure many diseases such as : Bronchitis; cough; lung diseases; skin diseases; decreasing sweating with tuberculosis; increasing urine; redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums, mouth, and throat; and preventing or stopping bleeding.
Not all of these uses are supported by scientific evidence. The plant is anastringent, coagulant, diuretic and expectorant.
Modern herbalists use it to treat dysentery, excessive menstrual flow, lung disorders,  bronchitis and jaundice, and gall and kidney stones.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate. 
See LIST OF MEDICINAL HERBS – INDEX on for more informations.
In China and South-east Asian countries are now used Prostrate Knotweed Polygonum aviculare as local medicines:
Parts used: Aerial parts, gathered in summer and dried.
Useful components: Tannins, flavonoids, mucilage, coumarins, siic acid, phenolcarboxylic acids
Medicinal use: Knotgrass is considered to be astringent, diuretic, emetic, purgative, vulnerary and styptic. It has been used for centuries in folk medicine for diarrhea, coughs, bronchial catarrh, inflammations of the mouth and upper respiratory tract, liver and kidney disorders. The decoction made from Knotgrass was administered to kill worms. The fresh juice has been used for nose bleed. An ointment made from the plant is an excellent remedy for sores. 
Safety: Some herbs could react with certain medication. Therefore it is advisable to contact your doctor/herbalist before consumption of any herb.
Kidney Deficiency Treatment
For weakened kidneys, drinking a mixture of prepared rehmannia root, wolfberry fruit, dogwood fruit, achyranthine root, bighead atractylodes rhizome, eucommia bark, cinnamon bark, pilose Asiabell root, lysimachia and climbing fern spore can help clean and restore strength to the kidneys.
Chinese Medicine for Kidney Pain
Pain from kidney stones or other disorders can be excruciating, and while Western medicine offers some good treatment options, others are choosing approaches in favor in the East. For instance, Chinese medicine has its own unique, effective way of treating ailments and diseases.
This a treatment option for pain brought on by small kidney stones. Its aim is to promote circulation of the qi (life force) and induce diuresis, which is the increase of urine production by the kidney. By using various herbs and plants, such as rhubarb, radish seeds and pyrrosia leaf, the body is cleaned and the stones dislodged.
Damp Heat Type
This method involves diluting lysimachia, prostate knotweed, Chinese pink herb, talc, phellodendron bark, Cape jasmine fruit, plantago seed, rhubarb and licorice root tip in water and drinking it. This method is best for treating more serious cases, in which the patient sees blood or pus in his urine or has a fever.
Acupuncture Treatment
Acupuncture therapy can also aid in relieving kidney pain, as this process releases painkilling endorphins that attack the source of the discomfort.
Electrotherapy is also an effective form of Chinese medicine helpful in easing kidney pain. The same acupuncture points are used, though an electrode is used to stimulate the body to speed healing.

Knotweed is an herb that is very hard to kill

Herbicide applications should be timed to catch plants prior to prostrate growth; the best control results will be obtained in the spring when plants are still upright and actively growing, from seedling to flower stage.
Prostrate knotweed is a supreme indicator weed. Knotweed is the earliest germinating of all the summer annual weeds. Due to its early germination timing, knotweed is able to claim resources and invade damaged areas before other desirable grasses begin to grow.
Prostrate knotweed is commonly associated with soil compaction and can be seen in gravel roadbeds, sidewalk edges, crevices, paths and other high-traffic areas (like in front of soccer goals). When knotweed germinates in March is often resembles grass and can offer some false hope that those damaged areas are spontaneously repairing themselves where the snowplow missed the sidewalk. The root system of prostrate knotweed is extremely fine and can mine even the most compacted soils. Prostrate knotweed produces very diminutive pinkish-white flowers in the axils of the leaves and reproduces by seed.
The characteristics of the knotweed that creates knotweed resveratrol are many advantageous ones. Knotweed is considered an invasive species, just another term for weed. It’s in the 100 Worst Weeds list. This plant lives for more than two years. Knotweed is very hard to kill and to completely eliminate it from an area is almost impossible. The weed can live in both extreme cold and extreme hot temperatures. It even survives in -30 degrees F. The roots can go down to almost ten feet deep.
Knotweed may be physically removed, although compact soil conditions may make complete root removal difficult.
Broad-leafed herbicides can also be used to eliminate young knotweed. A mix of 2-4,D and MCPP (mecoprop), can work when used early in the season. It may have to be used more than once to achieve good control. A mix of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba may be more effective, but be careful not to use it beneath young trees as it can be absorbed by their roots.
The best time to spray knotweed is in spring, when wind is calm and temperatures range between the high 50s and the low 80s and no rain is expected for 24-48 hours. The weeds must be growing actively. Be sure to read and follow the product's label instructions and precautions.
Lawn chemical application companies may be able to prevent knotweed with an early application of the pre-emergent herbicide isoxaben, which is not available to homeowners directly. Once established, knotweed is very difficult to remove with most herbicides.
                                                                             Edited and posted by Hồ Đình Hải
2-Knotgrass - Polygonum aviculare|Medicinal use… 
3-Polygonum aviculare – Wikipedia… - 
4-Knotgrass - Definition and More…  
5-Zodiac signs Astrology and Plants - Herbs Knotgrass - 
6-Common Knotgrass | The Wildlife Trusts -
7-Knotgrass (Ray's) 
8-Glossary - Knotgrass - Rigby Taylor
9-KNOTGRASS definition 

No comments:

Post a Comment